Retrieval Based Response



Predictions are used as query parameters into a search engine.


How can we constrain responses to a limited available set?


This section provides alternative descriptions of the pattern in the form of an illustration or alternative formal expression. By looking at the sketch a reader may quickly understand the essence of the pattern. Discussion

This is the main section of the pattern that goes in greater detail to explain the pattern. We leverage a vocabulary that we describe in the theory section of this book. We don’t go into intense detail into providing proofs but rather reference the sources of the proofs. How the motivation is addressed is expounded upon in this section. We also include additional questions that may be interesting topics for future research.

Known Uses

Here we review several projects or papers that have used this pattern.

Related Patterns In this section we describe in a diagram how this pattern is conceptually related to other patterns. The relationships may be as precise or may be fuzzy, so we provide further explanation into the nature of the relationship. We also describe other patterns may not be conceptually related but work well in combination with this pattern.

Relationship to Canonical Patterns

Relationship to other Patterns

Further Reading

We provide here some additional external material that will help in exploring this pattern in more detail.


To aid in reading, we include sources that are referenced in the text in the pattern. Smart Reply: Automated Response Suggestion for Email Semi-supervised Question Retrieval with Gated Convolutions

In this paper, we develop a methodology for finding semantically related questions. The task is difficult since 1) key pieces of information are often buried in extraneous details in the question body and 2) available annotations on similar questions are scarce and fragmented. We design a recurrent and convolutional model (gated convolution) to effectively map questions to their semantic representations. The models are pre-trained within an encoder-decoder framework (from body to title) on the basis of the entire raw corpus, and fine-tuned discriminatively from limited annotations. Our evaluation demonstrates that our model yields substantial gains over a standard IR baseline and various neural network architectures (including CNNs, LSTMs and GRUs). Efficient Natural Language Response Suggestion for Smart Reply

This paper presents a computationally efficient machine-learned method for natural language response suggestion. Feed-forward neural networks using n-gram embedding features encode messages into vectors which are optimized to give message-response pairs a high dot-product value. An optimized search finds response suggestions. The method is evaluated in a large-scale commercial e-mail application, Inbox by Gmail. Compared to a sequence-to-sequence approach, the new system achieves the same quality at a small fraction of the computational requirements and latency