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Name Weight Quantization (aka Binarization)


Reduce memory requirements by using weights of lower precision.





Known Uses

Related Patterns


References A Survey on Learning to Hash

the quantization approach can be derived from the distance-distance difference minimization criterion. Deep neural networks are robust to weight binarization and other non-linear distortions Layer Normalization

One way to reduce the training time is to normalize the activities of the neurons. In this paper, we transpose batch normalization into layer normalization by computing the mean and variance used for normalization from all of the summed inputs to the neurons in a layer on a single training case. Like batch normalization, we also give each neuron its own adaptive bias and gain which are applied after the normalization but before the non-linearity. Unlike batch normalization, layer normalization performs exactly the same computation at training and test times. It is also straightforward to apply to recurrent neural networks by computing the normalization statistics separately at each time step. Layer normalization is very effective at stabilizing the hidden state dynamics in recurrent networks. Empirically, we show that layer normalization can substantially reduce the training time compared with previously published techniques.

nvariance properties under the normalization methods. Recurrent Neural Networks With Limited Numerical Precision

This paper addresses the question of how to best reduce weight precision during training in the case of RNNs. We present results from the use of different stochastic and deterministic reduced precision training methods applied to three major RNN types which are then tested on several datasets. The results show that the weight binarization methods do not work with the RNNs. However, the stochastic and deterministic ternarization, and pow2-ternarization methods gave rise to low-precision RNNs that produce similar and even higher accuracy on certain datasets therefore providing a path towards training more efficient implementations of RNNs in specialized hardware. Binarized Neural Networks: Training Deep Neural Networks with Weights and Activations Constrained to +1 or -1 XNOR-Net: ImageNet Classification Using Binary Convolutional Neural Networks

In XNOR-Networks, both the filters and the input to convolutional layers are binary. XNOR-Networks approximate convolutions using primarily binary operations

figure illustrates the procedure explained in section 3.2 for approximating a convolution using binary operations. Ternary Neural Networks for Resource-Efficient AI Applications

We train these TNNs using a teacher-student approach. Using only ternary weights and ternary neurons, with a step activation function of two-thresholds, the student ternary network learns to mimic the behaviour of its teacher network. Google's Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation TRAINED TERNARY QUANTIZATION

In this work, we extended a large deviation analysis of the solution space of a single layer neural network from the purely binary and balanced case [14] to the general discrete case. Binarized Neural Networks on the ImageNet Classification Task

We trained Binarized Neural Networks (BNNs) on the high resolution ImageNet ILSVRC-2102 dataset classification task and achieved a good performance. With a moderate size network of 13 layers, we obtained top-5 classification accuracy rate of 84.1 % on validation set through network distillation, much better than previous published results of 73.2% on XNOR network and 69.1% on binarized GoogleNET. Scaling Binarized Neural Networks on Reconfigurable Logic

The Finn framework was recently proposed for building fast and flexible field programmable gate array (FPGA) accelerators for BNNs. Finn utilized a novel set of optimizations that enable efficient mapping of BNNs to hardware and implemented fully connected, non-padded convolutional and pooling layers, with per-layer compute resources being tailored to user-provided throughput requirements. Incremental Network Quantization: Towards Lossless CNNs with Low-Precision Weights

On one hand, we introduce three interdependent operations, namely weight partition, group-wise quantization and re-training. Gated XNOR Networks: Deep Neural Networks with Ternary Weights and Activations under a Unified Discretization Framework BitNet: Bit-Regularized Deep Neural Networks Verifying Properties of Binarized Deep Neural Networks